Immunization by vaccine-coated microneedle arrays protects against lethal influenza virus challenge

Qiyun Zhu, Vladimir G. Zarnitsyn, Ling Ye, Zhiyuan Wen, Yulong Gao, Lei Pan, Ioanna Skountzou, Harvinder S. Gill, Mark R. Prausnitz, Chinglai Yang, Richard W. Compans

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172 Scopus citations


Influenza prophylaxis would benefit from a simple method to administer influenza vaccine into skin without the need for hypodermic needles. In this study, solid metal microneedle arrays (MNs) were investigated as a system for cutaneous vaccine delivery using influenza virus antigen. The MNs with 5 monument-shaped microneedles per array were produced and coated with inactivated influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (IIV). As much as 10 μg of viral proteins could be coated onto an array of 5 microneedles, and the coated IIV was delivered into skin at high efficiency within minutes. The coated MNs were used to immunize mice in comparison with conventional intramuscular injection at the same dose. Analysis of immune responses showed that a single immunization with IIV-coated MNs induced strong antibody responses against influenza virus, with significant levels of hemagglutination inhibition activities (>1:40), which were comparable to those induced by conventional intramuscular immunization. Moreover, mice immunized by a single dose of IIV coated on MNs were effectively protected against lethal challenge by a high dose of mouse-adapted influenza virus A/PR/8/34. These results show that MNs are highly effective as a simple method of vaccine delivery to elicit protective immune responses against virus infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7968-7973
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number19
StatePublished - May 12 2009


  • Antibody
  • Immunity
  • Infection
  • Intradermal


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