Identification and quantification of bisphenol A by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in a lab-scale dual membrane system

J. Y. Hu, T. Yuan, S. L. Ong, L. F. Song, W. J. Ng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Endocrine disruptor contamination is an emerging issue of concern in the field of water quality engineering. In this study, a lab-scale microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO) based water reclamation system was set up to monitor and evaluate the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), which is a known oestrogenic compound. The identification and quantification of BPA were performed by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. It was noted that the detection method used in this study was able to achieve an average recovery ranging from 88.2 to 94.1% of BPA with standard deviations of less than 10% in different spiked samples. The detection limit of the analytical protocol was determined at 20 ng L-1. Based on the analytical protocol, it was noted that a low level of BPA (1.18-3.04 μg L-1) could be detected in feed water (effluent of an activated sludge treatment system) to the dual membrane water reclamation system. The results obtained suggested that BPA could be easily chlorinated by sodium hypochlorite with a dosage of 4 to 5 mg L-1 and a contact time of 1 to 2 min. In this lab-scale study, a satisfactory removal of BPA was readily obtained by RO and BPA was abated to an undetectable level in the product water. It was noted that the RO rejection characteristic of BPA was not sensitive to the variations in raw feed water characteristics experienced in this study. In addition, it was noted that BPA concentration present in raw feed water did not exert any significant impact on RO performance in terms of BPA rejection. The results of this study demonstrated that membrane technology could be effectively used for BPA removal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-144
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Environmental Monitoring
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2003


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