Hypoxia induces an increase in intestinal permeability and pulmonary arterial pressures in neonatal Holstein calves despite feeding the flavonoid rutin

Nicholas W. Shellenberger, Keleigh K. Collinsworth, Seenivasan Subbiah, David Klein, Joseph M. Neary

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The purposes of this study were to determine whether the naturally occurring flavonoid quercetin, as its glucorhamnoside rutin, reduces intestinal permeability and susceptibility to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in neonatal Holstein calves. A 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design was conducted using Holstein steers (n = 16). Factors included oxygen level (simulated altitude of 4,572 m vs. 975 m) and quercetin supplementation as its glucorhamnoside rutin (4 g of quercetin per day vs. 0 g per day). Two days after arrival (d 0 of study) the calves were blocked by body mass into treatment groups, and treatments were initiated. Pulmonary arterial pressure, echocardiography, and serum concentrations of orally administered lactulose (0.45 g/kg) and mannitol (0.15 g/kg) were measured on d 12, 13, and 14, respectively. Calves were euthanized on d 15 and pulmonary tissues collected for semiquantitative scoring of histological lesions. Data were analyzed using linear regression, generalized estimating equations, and 2-sample proportion tests. Hypoxia, but not rutin, was found to be associated with intestinal permeability. The lactulose-mannitol ratio was 0.54 ± 0.13 (standard error) in hypoxic calves and 0.02 ± 0.13 in normoxic controls. Hypoxia increased mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Calves fed rutin under hypoxic conditions tended to have a lower mean pulmonary arterial pressure (59 ± 7 mmHg) than control calves (80 ± 7 mmHg) but similar pressures under normoxic conditions. Paradoxically, however, a greater proportion of calves fed rutin had histological evidence of pulmonary arteriolar medial hypertrophy and adventitial hyperplasia than did controls. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that hypoxia increased intestinal permeability in neonatal calves. The flavonoid quercetin, as its glucorhamnoside rutin, had no protective effect on intestinal permeability, and, although it tended to reduce the severity of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, a greater proportion of calves fed rutin had histological lesions consistent with pulmonary arteriolar remodeling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2821-2828
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume103
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2020

Keywords

  • bacteremia
  • leaky gut
  • liver abscess
  • passive transfer

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