Human adenovirus type 36 enhances glucose uptake in diabetic and nondiabetic human skeletal muscle cells independent of insulin signaling

Zhong Q. Wang, William T. Cefalu, Xian H. Zhang, Yongmei Yu, Jianhua Qin, Leslie Son, Pamela M. Rogers, Nazar Mashtalir, Justin R. Bordelon, Jianping Ye, Nikhil V. Dhurandhar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE-Human adenovirus type 36 (Ad-36) increases adiposity but improves insulin sensitivity in experimentally infected animals. We determined the ability of Ad-36 to increase glucose uptake by human primary skeletal muscle (HSKM) cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The effect of Ad-36 on glucose uptake and cell signaling was determined in HSKM cells obtained from type 2 diabetic and healthy lean subjects. Ad-2, another human adenovirus, was used as a negative control. Gene expression and proteins of GLUT1 and GLUT4 were measured by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Role of insulin and Ras signaling pathways was determined in Ad-36-infected HSKM cells. RESULTS-Ad-36 and Ad-2 infections were confirmed by the presence of respective viral mRNA and protein expressions. In a dose-dependent manner, Ad-36 significantly increased glucose uptake in diabetic and nondiabetic HSKM cells. Ad-36 increased gene expression and protein abundance of GLUT1 and GLUT4, GLUT4 translocation to plasma membrane, and phosphatidylino- sitol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity in an insulin-independent manner. In fact, Ad-36 decreased insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation and IRS-1- and IRS-2-associated PI 3-kinase activities. On the other hand, Ad-36 increased Ras gene expression and protein abundance, and Ras siRNA abrogated Ad-36 -induced PI 3-kinase activation, GLUT4 protein abundance, and glucose uptake. These effects were not observed with Ad-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS-Ad-36 infection increases glucose uptake in HSKM cells via Ras-activated PI 3-kinase pathway in an insulin-independent manner. These findings may provide impetus to exploit the role of Ad-36 proteins as novel therapeutic targets for improving glucose handling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1805-1813
Number of pages9
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2008


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