Adult male ringed turtle doves (Streptopelia risoria/were administered 0 or 4-110 mg lead shot and/or were exposed to cold temperatures (6 ± 1°C). Five of the seven doves that ingested shot and were exposed to cold died. Doves that ingested shot and were not exposed to cold (21 ± 1°C) had no mortality after 9 d, but several birds had seizures. Tissues were examined microscopically for lesions. Doves ingesting shot consistently had Pb intranuclear inclusion bodies in cells of the proximal convoluted tubules, except if death occurred 48 h after shot ingestion. In such cases (as in cold-exposed, Pb-treated birds), intracytoplasmic inclusions were detected. Hemosiderin loading in Kupffer cells and rarely in hepatocytes was observed in doves ingesting Pb whether they were exposed to a normal temperature or to cold. It appeared that ingestion of shot could abruptly disturb spermatogenesis in ringed turtle doves. The seminiferious tubules were often devoid of spermatozoa in doves ingesting Pb.