Heat stress followed by an accompa-nying hemorrhagic challenge may influence hemostasis. We tested the hypothesis that hemostatic responses would be increased by passive heat stress, as well as exercise-induced heat stress, each with accompanying central hypovolemia to simulate a hemorrhagic insult. In aim 1, subjects were exposed to passive heating or normothermic time control, each followed by progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope. In aim 2 subjects exercised in hyperthermic environmental conditions, with and without accompanying dehydration, each also followed by progressive LBNP to presyncope. At baseline, pre-LBNP, and post-LBNP (<1, 30, and 60 min), hemostatic activity of venous blood was evaluated by plasma markers of hemostasis and thrombelastography. For aim 1, both hyperthermic and normothermic LBNP (H-LBNP and N-LBNP, respectively) resulted in higher levels of factor V, factor VIII, and von Willebrand factor antigen compared with the time control trial (all P < 0.05), but these responses were temperature independent. Hyperthermia increased fibrinolysis [clot lysis 30 min after the maximal amplitude reflecting clot strength (LY 30 )] to 5.1% post-LBNP compared with 1.5% (time control) and 2.7% in N-LBNP (P = 0.05 for main effect). Hyperthermia also potentiated increased platelet counts post-LBNP as follows: 274 K/+l for H-LBNP, 246 K/+l for N-LBNP, and 196 K/+l for time control (P < 0.05 for the interaction). For aim 2, hydration status associated with exercise in the heat did not affect the hemostatic activity, but fibrinolysis (LY 30 ) was increased to 6 –10% when subjects were dehydrated compared with an increase to 2– 4% when hydrated (P = 0.05 for treatment). Central hypovolemia via LBNP is a primary driver of hemostasis compared with hyperthermia and dehydration effects. However, hyperthermia does induce significant thrombocytosis and by itself causes an increase in clot lysis. Dehydration associated with exercise-induced heat stress increases clot lysis but does not affect exercise-activated or subsequent hypovol-emia-activated hemostasis in hyperthermic humans. Clinical implications of these findings are that quickly restoring a hemorrhaging hypovolemic trauma patient with cold noncoagulant fluids (crystal-loids) can have serious deleterious effects on the body’s innate ability to form essential clots, and several factors can increase clot lysis, which should therefore be closely monitored.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology|
|State||Published - Feb 2019|
- Lower body negative pressure