Helio-hydro and helio-thermal production of hydrogen

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15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Fossil fuels account for about 80% of the world annual energy demands. Renewables contribute 14% and nuclear some 6%. These numbers will soon change as the world's population grows, energy demand rises, cheap oil and gas deplete, global warming effects continue rising and city pollution worsens the living conditions. The development of energy sources and devices will emerge more aggressively to address the world's energy and environmental situation. A concept of using hydrogen as an energy carrier or storage as a fuel, a replacement of burning fluid fossil fuels is presented. Sources of energy from which hydrogen can be produced in a massive quantity and at a low cost are briefly surveyed. A short account of devices to be employed for hydrogen production is given. Primarily the sun, sea, runoff waters, winds and fissionable materials are to be utilized. The discussion on the inexhaustibility of naturally occurring sources utilized and/or harnessed in this process will lead to the low cost for hydrogen production. Some hydrogen rich products including hydrogen sulfide and methane accompany the oil, gas and brine, when they are pumped out of the ground. While methane is used sometimes as fuel; the hydrogen sulfide is disposed off invariably. In principle, hydrogen can be extracted from these waste products. We discuss here to produce hydrogen in economically feasible manner. The use of brine as a means of usable solar energy in the form of heat and electricity was discussed earlier. Here, we aim at discussing the production of hydrogen from the brine and hydrogen sulfide gas. The brine is proposed to be utilized for two purposes: One for salt gradient solar pond to produce usable heat and electricity, and the other as an electrolyte to produce hydrogen out of itself. The hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide can chemically be extracted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1099-1113
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume29
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2004

Keywords

  • Hydrogen
  • Ocean
  • Production methods
  • Solar thermal

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