A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the head losses at sewer pipe junctions (manholes) under surcharged conditions. A physical model of a manhole/pipeline system was constructed for head-loss measurements. Head-loss coefficients were determined for a variety of outlet-flow Reynolds numbers, surcharge levels, pipe sizes, flow configurations, and inlet-flow rates. Empirical formulas were also developed to estimate head-loss coefficients. The results indicate that head loss is insensitive to the amount of surcharge, but depends heavily on the flow configuration, relative flow rate, and the change of pipe diameter within the pipelines.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of the American Water Resources Association|
|State||Published - 1998|
- Head-loss coefficient
- Physical modeling