Centaurothamnus maximus (family Asteraceae), is a leafy shrub indigenous to the south-western Arabian Peninsula. With a paucity of phytochemical data on this species, we set out to chemically characterize the plant. From the aerial parts, two newly identified guaianolides were isolated: 3β-hydroxy-4α(acetoxy)-4β(hydroxymethyl)-8α-(4-hydroxy methacrylate)-1αH,5αH, 6αH-gual-10(14),11(13)-dien-6,12-olide (1) and 15-descarboxy picrolide A (2). Seven previously reported compounds were also isolated: 3β, 4α, 8α-trihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)-lαH, 5αH, 6βH, 7αH-guai-10(14),11(13)-dien-6,12-olide (3), chlorohyssopifolin B (4), cynaropikrin (5), hydroxyjanerin (6), chlorojanerin (7), isorhamnetin (8), and quercetagetin-3,6-dimethyl ether-4’-O-β-D-pyranoglucoside (9). Chemical structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques, including High Resolution Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry (HR-FAB-MS), 1D NMR;1 H,13 C NMR, Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer (DEPT), and 2D NMR (1 H-1 H COSY, HMQC, HMBC) anal-yses. In addition, a biosynthetic pathway for compounds 1–9 is proposed. The chemotaxonomic significance of the reported sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids considering reports from other Centaurea species is examined.
- Centaurothamnus maximus