Grip and forearm position effects on tests of static and dynamic upper body endurance

Carl Gabbard, Patrick Patterson, Jerry Elledge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The effects of grip and forearm position on two tests of upper body muscular endurance were investigated in 109 male subjects 18–21 years of age. Subjects were systematically presented 12 tasks: Six pull-up and six straight-arm hang grip and forearm variations. Each of the six tasks for both endurance tests represented a different combination of grip (thumb over bar and thumb under bar) and forearm position (pronated, supinated and semi-pronated). Task results were analyzed utilizing 2 × 3 (grip × forearm) ANOVA with repeated measures on the two factors. Analysis of pull-up data revealed that the semi-pronated and supinated forearm positions were not statistically different from each other, but superior to the pronated condition. Results of straight-arm hang performance revealed a significant difference between grips at the semi-pronated position, with the “thumb under bar” being superior. Results for forearm positions at grips indicated a significant difference for the “thumb under bar,” with the pronated and semi-pronated positions being superior to the supinated position. For forearm positions at “thumb over bar,” the pronated condition was significantly different from the semi-pronated and supinated positions. Thumb position trends and kinesiological mechanical analysis did foster general recommendations for use of the “thumb over bar” for pull-ups and the “thumb under bar” position for the straight-arm hang.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-179
Number of pages6
JournalResearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1981


  • Kinesiology
  • Muscular endurance
  • Pull-up
  • Strength


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