Green Lean Six Sigma for improving manufacturing sustainability: Framework development and validation

Rajeev Rathi, Mahender Singh Kaswan, Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes, Jiju Antony, Jennifer Cross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


In the past few decades, a competitive landscape, learned customers and rigorous regulations have forced manufacturing industries to focus on sustainability alongside operational efficiency. The main objective of the present study is to develop a systematic Green Lean Six Sigma (GLSS) framework for improvement in operational efficiency together with environmental and social sustainability. Further, the proposed framework was tested in a leading manufacturing company. The framework was designed with insights gained from the literature and industrial personnel and encompasses the systematic application of different tools of the Green paradigm, Lean, and Six Sigma, from the identification and assessment of the problem to the sustainment of the adopted measures. A systematic application of lifecycle assessment and social lifecycle assessment was used to assess environmental and societal performance. The sustainability focused GLSS framework enhances the environmental capability, process performance and provides a new perspective for researchers and practitioners to support GLSS projects to achieving higher sustainability dynamics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number131130
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
StatePublished - Apr 15 2022


  • Framework
  • Green lean six sigma
  • Lifecycle assessment
  • Manufacturing
  • Sustainability


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