GMR biosensor arrays: A system perspective

D. A. Hall, R. S. Gaster, T. Lin, S. J. Osterfeld, S. Han, B. Murmann, S. X. Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

104 Scopus citations

Abstract

Giant magnetoresistive biosensors are becoming more prevalent for sensitive, quantifiable biomolecular detection. However, in order for magnetic biosensing to become competitive with current optical protein microarray technology, there is a need to increase the number of sensors while maintaining the high sensitivity and fast readout time characteristic of smaller arrays (1-8 sensors). In this paper, we present a circuit architecture scalable for larger sensor arrays (64 individually addressable sensors) while maintaining a high readout rate (scanning the entire array in less than 4. s). The system utilizes both time domain multiplexing and frequency domain multiplexing in order to achieve this scan rate. For the implementation, we propose a new circuit architecture that does not use a classical Wheatstone bridge to measure the small change in resistance of the sensor. Instead, an architecture designed around a transimpedance amplifier is employed. A detailed analysis of this architecture including the noise, distortion, and potential sources of errors is presented, followed by a global optimization strategy for the entire system comprising the magnetic tags, sensors, and interface electronics. To demonstrate the sensitivity, quantifiable detection of two blindly spiked samples of unknown concentrations has been performed at concentrations below the limit of detection for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lastly, the multiplexing capability and reproducibility of the system was demonstrated by simultaneously monitoring sensors functionalized with three unique proteins at different concentrations in real-time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2051-2057
Number of pages7
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Volume25
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2010

Keywords

  • GMR biosensor
  • Magnetic biosensor
  • Multiplexing spin-valves
  • Spin-valve biosensor

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    Hall, D. A., Gaster, R. S., Lin, T., Osterfeld, S. J., Han, S., Murmann, B., & Wang, S. X. (2010). GMR biosensor arrays: A system perspective. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 25(9), 2051-2057. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2010.01.038