Changes in the glycome of human proteins and cells are associated with the progression of multiple diseases such as Alzheimer's, diabetes mellitus, many types of cancer, and those caused by viruses. Consequently, several studies have shown essential modifications to the isomeric glycan moieties for diseases in different stages. However, the elucidation of extensive isomeric glycan profiles remains challenging because of the lack of analytical techniques with sufficient resolution power to separate all glycan and glycopeptide iso-forms. Therefore, the development of sensitive and accurate approaches for the characterization of all the isomeric forms of glycans and glycopeptides is essential to tracking the progression of pathology in glycoprotein-related diseases. This review describes the isomeric separation achievements reported in glycomics and glycoproteomics in the last decade. It focuses on the mass spectrometry–based analytical strategies, stationary phases, and derivatization techniques that have been developed to enhance the separation mechanisms in liquid chromatography systems and the detection capabilities of mass spectrometry systems.
- isomeric separation
- mass spectrometry