Glutamine improves shoot morphogenesis in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Gunvant Patil, Ramesh Patel, Ranjeet Jaat, A. Pattanayak, Pradeep Jain, R. Srinivasan

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5 Scopus citations


The use of glutamine has been shown to increase the frequency of organogenesis and regeneration in the in vitro culture of several plants. The effect of glutamine on hormone-induced multiple shoot formation in desi and kabuli genotypes of chickpea (C-235 and PUSA-1053) were evaluated. Embryo axes with or without attached cotyledons were cultured in thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP)-containing medium, respectively, with various concentrations of glutamine. Glutamine improved and prolonged the multiple shoot regeneration ability of the embryo axis. Chickpea embryo axis with attached cotyledon and cultured in TDZ-containing medium showed improved and prolonged shoot regeneration with 5 mM glutamine, while embryo axis without cotyledon and cultured in BAP-containing medium showed prolonged regeneration ability in 10 mM glutamine. Glutamine, however, did not serve as a substitute for cotyledon. Desi genotype (C-235) showed better response for multiple shoot formation as compared to the kabuli genotype (PUSA-1053). Glutamine at a concentration of 5 mM also improved root formation in excised in vitro shoots.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1077-1084
Number of pages8
JournalActa Physiologiae Plantarum
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2009


  • Chickpea
  • Cicer arietinum
  • Cytokinin
  • Glutamine
  • Shoot morphogenesis


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