Gibson and Crooks (1938): Vision and validation

Patri Cia R. Delucia, Keith S. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Gibson and Crooks (1938) is a landmark article that was ahead of its time, has had sustained and significant impact, and raised issues that are still being considered now. Although most influential in driving research, the concepts Gibson and Crooks presented influenced other domains, including surgery and naval operations. After summarizing the key concepts in Gibson and Crooks, we show how those concepts foreshadowed key principles of Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception (Gibson, 1979/1986). We then describe research that validates and builds on the analyses of Gibson and Crooks. We conclude that Gibson and Crooks will continue to have impact and generate research for years to come.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-429
Number of pages17
JournalAmerican Journal of Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2017


  • Direct perception
  • Driving
  • Ecological approach (or direct perception)
  • Field of safe travel
  • Locomotion
  • Optic flow
  • Perception-action
  • Visual perception


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