Gene-rich UV sex chromosomes harbor conserved regulators of sexual development

Sarah B Carey, Jerry Jenkins, John T Lovell, Florian Maumus, Avinash Sreedasyam, Adam C Payton, Shengqiang Shu, George P Tiley, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Adam Healey, Kerrie Barry, Cindy Chen, Mei Wang, Anna Lipzen, Chris Daum, Christopher A Saski, Jordan C McBreen, Roth E Conrad, Leslie M Kollar, Sanna OlssonSanna Huttunen, Jacob B Landis, J Gordon Burleigh, Norman J Wickett, Matthew Johnson, Stefan A Rensing, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz, Stuart F McDaniel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Nonrecombining sex chromosomes, like the mammalian Y, often lose genes and accumulate transposable elements, a process termed degeneration. The correlation between suppressed recombination and degeneration is clear in animal XY systems, but the absence of recombination is confounded with other asymmetries between the X and Y. In contrast, UV sex chromosomes, like those found in bryophytes, experience symmetrical population genetic conditions. Here, we generate nearly gapless female and male chromosome-scale reference genomes of the moss Ceratodon purpureus to test for degeneration in the bryophyte UV sex chromosomes. We show that the moss sex chromosomes evolved over 300 million years ago and expanded via two chromosomal fusions. Although the sex chromosomes exhibit weaker purifying selection than autosomes, we find that suppressed recombination alone is insufficient to drive degeneration. Instead, the U and V sex chromosomes harbor thousands of broadly expressed genes, inclu
Original languageEnglish
JournalDefault journal
StatePublished - Jun 2021

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