Chemical and plant growth studies of Bacilli strains GB03 and IN937a revealed that the volatile components 2,3-butanediol and acetoin trigger plant growth promotion in Arabidopsis. Differences in growth promotion when cytokinin-signaling mutants are exposed to GB03 versus IN937a volatiles suggest a divergence in chemical signaling for these two bacterial strains. To provide a comprehensive chemical profile of bacterial volatiles emitted from these biologically active strains, headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with software extraction of overlapping GC-separated components was employed. Ten volatile metabolites already reported from GB03 and IN937a were identified as well as 28 compounds not previously characterized. Most of the newly identified compounds were branched-chain alcohols released from IN937a, at much higher levels than in GB03. Principal component analysis clearly separated GB03 from IN937a, with GB03 producing higher amounts of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and butane-1-methoxy-3-methyl. The branched-chain alcohols share a similar functional motif to that of 2,3-butanediol and may afford alternative structural patterns for elicitors from bacterial sources.
- B. amyliquefaciens
- Bacillus subtilis
- Ehrlich pathway
- Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)
- Principal component analysis (PCA)
- Solid-phase microextraction (SPME)
- Volatile organic compound (VOC)