The methods to provide functions to nanofiber webs and applications, characterization, evaluation methods, market value, and future directions of nanofiber webs are summarized and presented in this review. Incorporating drugs, nanoparticles, functional matters, or arranging special surface structures are customarily used methods to furnish the performance of nanofibers. The promising application areas of nanofiber webs include drug delivery, water filtration, biomedical application, energy storage protective clothing, and air/gas filtration. The characterization of nanofiber webs includes general and functional properties. The market values of nanofiber products are summarized and analyzed based on the reports conducted by BBC Research.