Full spectrum classroom design: Inclusive environments for students with autism

Kristi S. Gaines, Leeanne Bergen, Zane D. Curry, Su Jeong Hwang Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


As the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders increases, so does the need for environments sensitive to their behavioral triggers. Contemporary classrooms are often expected to be inclusive, but may be a source of many of these triggers. This study consisted of two parts (1) determining visual and auditory triggers prevalent in classrooms and (2) identifying visual and auditory triggers in existing classrooms. This information was combined with common characteristics of second grade classrooms to develop a conceptual prototype design. The conceptual design addressed the needs of children with ASD, while improving the classroom environment for all students. The goal of this study was to develop a set of guidelines that could be used by teachers in inclusive learning environments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-28
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Learner Diversity and Identities
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2014


  • Autism
  • Classroom Design
  • Inclusion
  • Sensory Triggers


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