Frequency responsive services by wind generation resources in United States

Venkatesh Yadav Singarao, Vittal S. Rao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


United States' Wind Vision report envisions wind energy to generate 20% and 35% of nation's electricity by 2030 and 2050 respectively. Taking in to account of the aforementioned vision, the electric power industry is promoting generation of wind power and integration into the US interconnection grids. Over the last decade, this fast growing grid connected wind power generation has raised several new technical, regulatory and economic concerns for grid operations and electricity markets. Therefore, it becomes essential to perform research study and determine possible solutions for the integration of high penetration levels of wind power with the power grid. This paper focuses on the grid integration issue associated with deteriorated frequency response of power system when significant levels of wind power generation is present in the total generation mix. A brief review of the recently introduced frequency response regulatory standards and requirements for wind power plants in United States is presented along with the turbine manufacturer's advanced grid technology upgrade options to maintain the power system reliability. This paper evaluates the provision of ancillary services such as Emulated Inertial Response (EIR) and Primary Frequency Response (PFR) by wind generation resources, and investigates the impact of different control architectures on frequency response metrics. Further, it discusses the costs, benefits and other economic impacts associated with the various frequency control techniques of wind power plants. Finally, guidelines and priorities for wind turbine manufacturers, generating entities, balancing authorities and regulators are provided to ensure the increased reliability without additional costs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1097-1108
Number of pages12
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
StatePublished - Mar 2016


  • Ancillary service markets
  • Emulated inertial response
  • Frequency responsive service
  • Primary frequency response
  • Reliability standard
  • Synchronous inertial response
  • Variable speed wind turbines


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