Frequency effect on the sonochemical remediation of alachlor

Darcey G. Wayment, Dominick J. Casadonte

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64 Scopus citations

Abstract

The effect of ultrasonic frequency on the sonodegradation of alachlor is described. The rate observed for the destruction of alachlor is approximately 25 times faster at 300 kHz under argon saturation than at 20 kHz under comparable acoustic input energy. The effect of variation of a number of extrinsic parameters such as dissolved gases, radical scavengers and hydroxyl radical promoters is also explored. Argon-saturated solutions display an enhancement in rate by a factor of two compared to either oxygen- or air-saturated solutions upon sonication at 300 kHz. The principal ultrasonic degradation products have been determined in air, argon, and oxygen. The products result primarily from cleavage of the N-methoxymethyl unit when sonication occurs in argon and air. Oxygen addition has been observed when the saturating gas is oxygen. The nature of the active site for reactivity of alachlor is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-257
Number of pages7
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2002

Keywords

  • Alachlor
  • Environmental remediation
  • Sonication
  • Variable frequency

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