Freedom of Expression and Professional Status

Research output: Other contributionpeer-review


The institutional media are the traditional beneficiaries of free speech protections. However, members of other “expressive” professions have sought refuge under the umbrella of constitutional protections by virtue of their professional status or occupations. The practice of conferring speech rights to specific individuals or members of certain occupations on the basis of their professional status reflects the politico-cultural specificities of each nation. In the United States, professional groups seek protection under the First Amendment while in Europe, the focal point of freedom of expression is the citizen, not the professional journalist. In European court cases involving newspapers, the “press” is not often singled out as the beneficially of constitutional protection as is the case in the United States. This entry describes and explains the law and policy of attribution of freedom of expression rights by virtue of professional or occupational status in the United States and se
Original languageEnglish
PublisherWiley/ Blackwell
StatePublished - Feb 2015


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