Chronic liver diseases progressively lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, and other complications. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and microspectroscopy imaging are rapidly advancing techniques with multiple benefits for early diagnosis, grading, and monitoring of a broad spectrum of liver diseases. FTIR provides a biochemical overview of a sample, which can be used to determine the need for further in-depth investigations. Numerous studies have showed that infrared imaging offers a great promise for understanding of disease pathogenesis compared to that of common histopathological investigations. Moreover, high-throughput infrared characterization of biofluids has attracted increased interests for a wide array of pathologic diagnosis. The use of infrared spectroscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnosis, grading, and monitoring of liver diseases requires an understanding of infrared microspectroscopy, sample preparation, data collection, analysis, and interpretation. This review provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of FTIR spectroscopy and microspectroscopy characterization of biofluids and tissues related to hepatic diseases. Each section of this review highlights practical problems and solutions for conducting FTIR spectroscopy and microspectroscopy studies.
- FTIR spectroscopy and microspectroscopy imaging
- biofluid analysis
- high-throughput analysis
- liver diseases
- multivariate data analysis