Formative measurement: A critical perspective

Roy D. Howell, Einar Breivik, James B. Wilcox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The past five years have witnessed a plethora of articles on the topic of formative measurement, both in the IS area and in other disciplines. This work can best be described as divergent and often contradictory. In this paper we review the issues surrounding formative measurement and attempt to delineate areas of agreement and to clarify points of disagreement regarding problems with formative measurement and proposed solutions. We provide six recommendations regarding the future use of formative measurement in IS research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-55
Number of pages12
JournalData Base for Advances in Information Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2013


  • Constructs
  • Formative Measurement
  • PLS
  • Reflective Measurement
  • SEM


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