Focus of Attention Verbalizations in Beginning Band: A Multiple Case Study

John Parsons, Amy L. Simmons

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


<jats:p> Although the effects of focus of attention (FOA) on the performance of gross motor skills are now well understood, less is known about the role of FOA in naturalistic classroom settings where learners are engaged in the ongoing acquisition and refinement of complex motor skills. The purpose of this study, the first of its kind, was to explore how music teachers focus learners’ attention on physical actions (internal focus) and on the effects of those actions (external focus). We recorded three experienced band directors teaching beginner classes (sixth graders) and completed a content analysis of video recordings to describe (a) teachers’ use of internally focused (IF) and externally focused (EF) verbalizations and (b) patterns among IF and EF verbalizations. These teachers most often directed student attention to internal aspects of performance, and they also paired IF and EF statements to clearly convey how those actions affect external outcomes. Although our descriptive mu
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-166
JournalDefault journal
StatePublished - Jul 2021


Dive into the research topics of 'Focus of Attention Verbalizations in Beginning Band: A Multiple Case Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this