The flea genus Neotyphloceras Rothschild (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae) includes five species and two subspecies distributed from Venezuela to southern Chile and Argentina. Only Neotyphloceras crassispina hemisus Jordan has been registered in Bolivia. The present study examines species of Neotyphloceras collected in Bolivian localities in the Departments of La Paz, Cochabamba and Tarija, and describes the morphology of the modified abdominal segments in males and females of Neotyphloceras rosenbergi Rothschild on the basis of type material and specimens collected from Tarija. A new species, Neotyphloceras boliviensis n. sp., is described and new host associations are reported for N. rosenbergi, Neotyphloceras crassispina crassispina and N. crassispina hemisus. Neotyphloceras c. crassispina and N. rosenbergi are reported for the first time in Bolivia. The distribution of N. rosenbergi is extended 1600 km to the south. Given the potential medical and veterinary significance of fleas as disease vectors, and considering that in the Departments of La Paz and Tarija several human cases of plague have been reported, and species of flea have been identified as main vectors of these diseases, the new records of fleas in Bolivia reported herein may be useful for epidemiological studies on flea-borne diseases.
- Andean region