Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to calf-fed Holsteins has minimal effects on semimembranosus steak color

J. A. Gunderson, M. C. Hunt, T. A. Houser, E. A.E. Boyle, M. E. Dikeman, D. E. Johnson, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, C. Brooks, J. Killefer, D. M. Allen, M. N. Streeter, W. T. Nichols, J. P. Hutcheson, D. A. Yates

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


To determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d (ZH0, ZH20, ZH30, ZH40) on semimembranosus (SM) steak color and color stability in 3 packaging systems, SM subprimals were removed from 60 calf-fed Holstein steers 24 h postmortem. A 7.62-cm-thick portion was removed from each subprimal and stored (2°C) for 21 d; then two 2.54-cm-thick steaks were cut, overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film, and assigned to 0 or 3 d of display. Remaining portions of the subprimals were vacuum packaged for 10 d and then enhanced (10% with a solution containing 0.3% sodium chloride, 0.35% phosphate, and 0.05% rosemary extract), cut into steaks, packaged in high-oxygen (HO-MAP) or carbon monoxide (CO-MAP) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and assigned to 0, 3, or 5 d (HO-MAP) or 0 or 9 d (CO-MAP) of display. Panelists evaluated the deep and superficial portions of SM steaks for initial color, display color, discoloration, pH, L*, a*, b*, hue angle, and saturation indices. Feeding duration did not affect (P > 0.05) initial color scores of steaks in PVC. Steaks displayed in PVC from ZH20 or ZH30 diets were slightly brighter and less discolored than the ZH40 treatment. For enhanced steaks in HO-MAP, ZH20 steaks were darker on d 5 (P < 0.05) and more discolored (P < 0.05) on d 3 through 5 than all other diet treatments. For enhanced steaks from steers fed ZH40 and in CO-MAP, the deep and superficial SM tended (P > 0.05) to have improved display color compared with other dietary regimens; however, steaks in CO-MAP from all feeding durations had less than 20% metmyoglobin through d 9 of display. Overall, feeding ZH20 might result in steaks with slightly less color stability when packaged in HO-MAP; however, feeding ZH20 or ZH30 to calf-fed Holstein steers will yield steaks that have equal to or more desirable color traits when packaged in PVC or CO-MAP. Regardless of ZH feeding regimen, HO-MAP and CO-MAP extended the color life of the SM. The CO-MAP system minimized color differences between the superficial and deep portions of the SM muscle and extended total case life compared with traditional and HO-MAP packaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3751-3763
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of animal science
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2009


  • Display color
  • High oxygen and carbon monoxide modified atmosphere packaging
  • Holstein beef
  • Overwrap packaging
  • Zilpaterol hydrochloride
  • β-adrenergic agonist


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