Solid-state Drives (SSDs) have changed the landscape of storage systems and present a promising storage solution for data-intensive applications due to their low latency, high bandwidth, and low power consumption compared to traditional hard disk drives. SSDs achieve these desirable characteristics using internal parallelism-parallel access to multiple internal flash memory chips-and a Flash Translation Layer (FTL) that determines where data are stored on those chips so that they do not wear out prematurely. However, current state-of-the-art cache-based FTLs like the Demand-based Flash Translation Layer (DFTL) donot allow IO schedulers to take full advantage of internal parallelism, because they impose a tight coupling between the logical-to-physical address translation and the data access. To address this limitation, we introduce a new FTL design called Parallel-DFTL that works with the DFTL to decouple address translation operations from data accesses. Parallel-DFTL separates address translation and data access operations into different queues, allowing the SSD to use concurrent flash accesses for both types of operations. We also present a Parallel-LRU cache replacement algorithm to improve the concurrency of address translation operations. To compare Parallel-DFTL against existing FTL approaches, we present a Parallel-DFTL performance model and compare its predictions against those for DFTL and an ideal page-mapping approach. We also implemented the Parallel-DFTL approach in an SSD simulator using real device parameters, and used trace-driven simulation to evaluate Parallel-DFTL's efficacy. Our evaluation results show that Parallel-DFTL improved the overall performance by up to 32% for the real IO workloads we tested, and by up to two orders of magnitude with synthetic test workloads. We also found that Parallel-DFTL is able to achieve reasonable performance with a very small cache size and that it provides the best benefit for those workloads with large request size or with high write ratio.
- Address translation
- Flash translation layer