This study investigated the association of over-claiming with student achievement in mathematics from mixture modeling. We examined three competing models to find relationships between over-claiming, reported familiarity, and mathematics achievement. We then identified latent classes by use of the three variables. This latent class analysis examined the existence of subpopulations, which revealed the disguised details of the relationship between over-claiming, reported familiarity, and mathematics achievement. The results of this study represent findings from a sample of 15-year-olds across the United States (n = 4978). Three distinct latent classes were identified. One latent class demonstrated significantly lower scores on all motivational indicators examined than the other two latent classes, suggesting disengagement in this latent class. Students from the rest two non-disengaged latent classes were considered as engaged students. Results indicate that over-claiming has a significant negative relationship with student achievement in mathematics among the engaged students. The disengaged group appears to over-claim the least. The relationships among these three latent classes provide possible explanations as to why the current literature reported mixed results regarding the relationships between over-claiming and achievement or cognitive ability.
- Feeling of knowing
- Latent class analysis