Examining pathways between bully victimization, depression, & school belonging among early adolescents

Jordan P. Davis, Gabriel Merrin, Katherine M. Ingram, Dorothy L. Espelage, Alberto Valido, America J. El Sheikh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


ObjectivesThe relationship between bully victimization and depression has been examined extensively with prior research showing long-term cascade of problems stemming from both exposure to victimization and depressive symptomology. However, prior research has failed to consider how protective factors may mitigate these long-term problems. Three theoretical models were tested: the interpersonal risk model, symptom driven model, and transactional model.<br>MethodsThe present study employs a novel statistical technique to explore longitudinal reciprocal associations among bullying, depression, and school belonging in a sample of 2177 middle school students (ages 11 to 15) in a Midwestern state. We used a model building process to explore the overall association between bully victimization, depression, and school belonging as well as a multi-group model in which models were estimated for boys and girls, separately.<br>ResultsIn our overall model, results indicated support for both symptom
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2365-2378
JournalJournal of Child and Family Studies
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019


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