This article examines the impact of multiple individual and ecological factors on the self-determination of students with learning disabilities, mild and moderate mental retardation, and other health impairments. Baseline data from a multistate, longitudinal research project evaluating interventions to promote self-determination were examined using structural equation modeling. The findings suggest that teachers viewed students' capacity for self-determination differently based on level of cognitive impairment, but not students' opportunities for self-determination. Capacity, opportunity, and transition empowerment predicted students'self-reported level of self-determination, but the degree to which students were included in general education did not. Significant differences emerged in the pattern of predictive relationships, however, depending on the measure of self-determination utilized. Also discussed are implications for research and practice.