Evaluating the performance of the MMPI-3 over-reporting scales: Sophisticated simulators and the effects of comorbid conditions

Nicole M. Morris, Jessica Mattera, Brittney Golden, Serena Moses, Paul B. Ingram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Objective: We examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3) to detect feigned over-reporting using a symptom-based coaching simulation design across a control group and three diagnostic conditions: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), minor traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and comorbid PTSD and mTBI. Method: Participants were310 college students who wererandomly assigned to one of the four conditions. For participants in the feigning conditions, they were provided with a descriptionof their respective disorder condition throughout the duration of the session and asked to feign according to their condition while completing the MMPI-3. Results: MMPI-3 over-reporting scales perform well at classifying feigning. There is low sensitivity, high specificity, and effect magnitudes are medium to large range (1.12 − 2.47). There are no differences in scales assessing over-reporting between diagnostic conditions with dissimilar symptoms. Conclusions: Findings provide initial support for the use of the MMPI-3 overreporting scales for detecting feigned PTSD, mTBI, and comorbid PTSD and mTBI. Further, individuals feigning different disorders, namely PTSD, mTBI, and comorbid PTSD and mTBI, feign predominantly general psychopathological symptoms, making Fp the strongest scale in terms of detecting these feigned disorders. Future research will benefit from establishing relevant diagnostic comparison groups to contrast with this study and utilizing known-group designs withboth PVT and SVT administration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2361-2369
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2022


  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3
  • PTSD
  • assessment
  • feigning
  • traumatic brain injury
  • validity scales


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