Environmentally Conscious Design and Manufacturing: A State-of-the-Art Survey

Hong C. Zhang, Tsai C. Kuo, Huitian Lu, Samuel H. Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

221 Scopus citations


Environmentally conscious design and manufacturing (ECD&M) is a view of manufacturing that includes the social and technological aspects of the design, synthesis, processing, and use of products in continuous or discrete manufacturing industries. The benefits of ECD&M include safer and cleaner factories, worker protection, reduced future costs for disposal, reduced environment and health risks, improved product quality at lower cost, better public image, and higher productivity. Environmentally conscious technologies and design practices will allow manufacturers to minimize waste and to turn waste into a profitable product. This paper updates information about ECD&M and provides some general information, guidelines, and references for research and implementation. In the meantime, more clear definitions of related terms used in the ECD&M area are provided. A brief future trends analysis is also provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)352-371
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Systems
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1997


  • Design for Disassembly and Recycling
  • Design for Environment
  • Environmentally Conscious Design and Manufacturing
  • Lifecycle Engineering


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