Enriching goal-setting theory with time: An integrated approach

Yitzhak Fried, Linda Haynes Slowik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

140 Scopus citations


We examine the overlooked role of time in goal-setting theory and demonstrate how the integration of time into this theory adds to its dynamism and validity in the increasingly complex, constantly changing work environment. Following a brief discussion of developments in the scientific understanding of time, we discuss and illustrate how these new understandings enhance the utility and theoretical soundness of the theory and how time can be integrated into the theory's main components: goal difficulty, goal attainability, and goal specificity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)404-422
Number of pages19
JournalAcademy of Management Review
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2004


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