Attention can be improved by repetition of a specific task that involves an attention network (network training), or by exercise or meditation that changes the brain state (state training). We first review the concept of attention networks that link changes in orienting, alerting and executive control to brain networks. Network training through video games or computer exercises can improve aspects of attention. The extent of transfer beyond the trained task is a controversial issue. Mindfulness is a form of meditation that keeps attention focused on the current moment. Some forms of meditation have been shown to improve executive attention reduce stress and produce specific brain changes. Additional research is needed to understand the limits and mechanisms of these effects.