Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States

Ugur Soytas, Ramazan Sari, Bradley T. Ewing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

868 Scopus citations


This paper investigates the effect of energy consumption and output on carbon emissions in the United States. Earlier research focused on testing the existence and/or shape of an environmental Kuznets curve without taking energy consumption into account. We investigate the Granger causality relationship between income, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, including labor and gross fixed capital formation in the model. We find that income does not Granger cause carbon emissions in the US in the long run, but energy use does. Hence, income growth by itself may not become a solution to environmental problems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)482-489
Number of pages8
JournalEcological Economics
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - May 15 2007


  • Carbon emissions
  • Economic growth
  • Energy consumption
  • Generalized impulse response functions
  • Generalized variance decompositions
  • Granger causality


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