Encoding and decoding target locations with waves in the turtle visual cortex

Xiuxia Du, Bijoy K. Ghosh, Philip Ulinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Visual stimuli elicit waves of activity that propagate across the visual cortex of turtles. An earlier study showed that these waves encode information about the positions of stimuli in visual space. This paper addresses the question of how this information can be decoded from the waves. Windowing techniques were used to temporally localize information contained in the wave. Sliding encoding windows were used to represent waves of activity as low dimensional temporal strands in an appropriate space. Expanding detection window (EDW) or sliding detection window (SDW) techniques were combined with statistical hypothesis testing to discriminate input stimuli. Detection based on an EDW was more reliable than detection based on a SDW. Detection performance improved at a very early stage of the cortical response as the length of the detection window is increased. The property of intrinsic noise was explicitly considered. Assuming that the noise is colored provided a more reliable estimate than did the assumption of a white noise in the cortical output.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-577
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2005


  • B space representation
  • Karhunen-Loeve (KL) decomposition
  • Statistical hypothesis testing
  • Turtle visual cortex


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