Empirical correlates and expanded interpretation of the MMPI-2-RF restructured clinical scale 3 (Cynicism)

Paul B. Ingram, Kristy M. Kelso, David M. McCord

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

The recent release of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has received much attention from the clinical psychology community. Particular concerns have focused on Restructured Clinical Scale 3 (RC3; Cynicism). This article briefly reviews the major criticisms and responses regarding the restructuring of Clinical Scale 3. The primary purpose of the article is to provide expanded interpretive perspectives on RC3 by correlating it with a selection of external variables that are conceptually related. Forty undergraduate volunteers completed the MMPI-2-RF as well as measures of Machiavellianism, alienation, faith in people, and locus of control. Results showed strong correlations between RC3 and Machiavellianism (.47) and alienation (.60), with item-level information that may extend existing interpretive statements to include, not just a cynical view of others, but a willingness to intentionally lie, cheat, deceive, and manipulate (i.e., Machiavellianism).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-101
Number of pages7
JournalAssessment
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2011

Keywords

  • MMPI-2-RF
  • Machiavellianism
  • RC scales
  • Restructured Clinical Scale 3
  • cynicism

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