Effects of ZnO nanomaterials on Xenopus laevis growth and development

Shawna Nations, Monique Long, Mike Wages, Jaclyn Canas, Jonathan D. Maul, Chris Theodorakis, George P. Cobb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


The objectives of this study were to quantify uptake and developmental effects of zinc oxide nanomaterials (nano-ZnO) on Xenopus laevis throughout the metomormosis process. To accomplish this, X. laevis were exposed to aqueous suspensions of 40-100. nm nano-ZnO beginning in-ovo and proceeding through metamorphosis. Nanomaterials were dispersed via sonication methods into reconstituted moderately hard water test solutions. A flow-through system was utilized to decrease the likelihood of depletion in ZnO concentration. Exposure to 2. mg/L nano-ZnO significantly increased mortality incidence to 40% and negatively affected metamorphosis of X. laevis. Tadpoles exposed to 2. mg/L nano-ZnO developed slower as indicated by tadpoles with an average stage of 56 at the conclusion of the study which was significantly lower than the control tadpole stages. No tadpoles exposed to 2. mg/L of nano-ZnO completed metamorphosis by the conclusion of the study. Tadpoles exposed to 0.125. mg/L nano-ZnO experienced faster development along with larger body measurements indicating that low dose exposure to nano-ZnO can stimulate growth and metamorphosis of X. laevis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-210
Number of pages8
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2011


  • Amphibian
  • Chronic toxicity
  • Development
  • Nanomaterials
  • Xenopus laevis
  • Zinc oxide


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