After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following: The pertinent female reproductive anatomy and physiology of a normal menstrual cycle, including the different phases and role of various hormones. The different components of bone along with its function, biochemistry, and metabolism. The interaction between different ovarian hormones and various bone components. The definition, importance, and effective methods of achieving peak bone mass. The results of an abnormal menstrual cycle on attainment of peak bone mass, how to go about assessing/measuring bone density, and ways to address this issue further to help minimize bone loss and maintain bone density.