Effects of response-contingent clock stimuli on behavior maintained by intravenous codeine in the rhesus monkey

Alice M. Young, Travis Thompson, Marilyn A. Jensen, Laurie R. Muchow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Response-contingent brief presentations of clock stimuli differentially correlated with food availability altered rates of codeine-maintained lever pressing. Rhesus monkeys performed under a two lever multiple schedule: Multiple fixed interval clock 5 min variable interval 2 min. Different colored lights were presented during successive 75 sec periods of the fixed-interval clock component. Lever pressing under the FI Clock schedule was maintained by presentation of 1 g Noyes pellets, and lever pressing under the VI schedule by 0.05 mg/kg infusions of codeine PO4. Characteristic schedule-controlled performance developed in both schedule components. When the clock stimulus from the first or the final period of the FI Clock schedule was presented contigent upon completion of a short fixed ratio of responses during the variable-interval schedule component, the first clock stimulus decreased and the final clock stimulus increased rates of codeine-maintained lever pressing. Neither the first nor the final clock stimulus altered the frequency of codeine injection. The effect of each clock stimulus was accentuated by increasing the duration of stimulus presentation and by decreasing the response requirement for stimulus illumination. These rate-altering effects of the clock stimuli were most pronounced when different reinforcers were presented in the two components of the multiple schedule when either food or intravenous codeine injection was available under both components of the multiple schedule, response-contingent clock stimulus presentation did not alter response rates under the VI schedule.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-49
Number of pages7
JournalPharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1979


  • Clock stimuli
  • Codeine self-administration
  • FI Clock schedule
  • Multiple schedule
  • Rhesus monkey
  • VI schedule


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