Effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure on reproduction and hatchling development in northern bobwhite quail

Kristina J. Brunjes, Scott A. Severt, Jun Liu, Xiaoping Pan, John Brausch, Stephen A. Cox, George P. Cobb, Scott T. McMurry, Ronald J. Kendall, Philip N. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Adult Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were exposed via food to octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), an energetic compound found in soils at military training installations. Depuration of HMX into eggs was examined in an initial study, and effects on egg production, hatching, growth, development, and survival of chicks were examined in a follow-up study. HMX was readily and rapidly transferred from female quail into eggs. Marked weight loss was observed in quail exposed to 125 and 250 mg/kg HMX in food, likely due to reductions in food intake rather than a toxic mechanism. In the second study, significant alterations in body mass occurred among quail at concentrations >52.5 ± 9.3 mg/kg but not at 12.3 ± 1.1 mg/kg in food. Treatment-related reductions in food consumption and decreases in egg laying rates were observed. No HMX-related effects were found in chick growth or survival. Quail inhabiting HMX-contaminated sites could possibly be exposed to HMX and therefore deposition of HMX into eggs is also possible. However, results of these studies further suggest that the potential for reproductive toxicity of HMX to birds is low.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)682-687
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues
Volume70
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2007

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