Effects of HMX exposure upon metabolic rate of northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in ovo

Jun Liu, Stephen B. Cox, Blake Beall, Kristina J. Brunjes, Xiaoping Pan, Ronald J. Kendall, Todd A. Anderson, Scott T. McMurry, George P. Cobb, Philip N. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


We evaluated the use of the gas exchange rate as an ecologically relevant indicator of chemical stress in avian embryos/eggs. Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were exposed to octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) via feed containing nominal concentrations of 0, 12.5, 50.0, and 125.0 mg kg-1. Metabolic rates (oxygen consumption) of developing quail eggs were then measured via respirometry to examine potential effects of HMX exposure. Metabolic rates were examined on 5, 9, and 21 d of incubation. Next, concentrations of HMX in embryos/eggs were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mean (±SE) concentrations of HMX in eggs were 21.0 ± 5.9, 1113 ± 79.0, 3864 ± 154.0, and 7426 ± 301.1 ng g-1 in control, low, medium and high dose groups, respectively. There were significant differences in oxygen consumption among the three embryo ages, however differences among the ages were not consistent among dose groups (age × dose group interaction p < 0.0001). Oxygen consumption rates did not vary as a function of HMX in embryos (p = 0.18). No evidence was observed for alterations of in ovo metabolic rates associated with HMX exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1945-1949
Number of pages5
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 2008


  • Egg
  • Metabolic rate
  • Metabolism
  • Oxygen consumption
  • Quail
  • Respirometry


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