Ruminally protected choline (RPC) was evaluated in two experiments. In Exp. 1, beef steers (n = 160; average initial BW = 350.9 kg) were fed a 90% concentrate diet with either O, .25, .5, or 1.0% RPC (DM basis) for 112 to 140 d. Feeding .25% RPC increased ADG 11.6% compared with 0% RPC, but responses diminished with increasing RPC level (cubic response, P < .10). Daily DMI was not affected by RPC level, but feed:gain was improved 6.8% with .25% RPC compared with 0% RPC, and responses diminished with increasing RPC level (cubic response, P < .10). Carcass yield grade increased linearly (P < .10) as RPC level increased, but marbling score was lower for all three RPC-containing diets than for the 0% RPC diet (quadratic response, P < .05). In Exp. 2, 20 Suffolk lambs (initial BW = 29.8 kg) were fed an 80% concentrate diet for 56 d with the same RPC levels as in Exp. 1. Serum triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol (CLSTRL) were measured in weekly blood samples, and intensive blood samples were collected on d 28 and 56 to evaluate serum insulin (INS), GH, and NEFA. For the 56-d feeding period, ADG responded quadratically (P < .10) to RPC level, but DMI and feed:gain were not affected. Serum INS and NEFA concentrations increased linearly (P < .05) and serum GH responded cubically (P < .05) to RPC level on d 28, but no differences were noted on d 56. Serum TG concentrations in weekly samples increased linearly (P < .10) with RPC level, but, averaged over all weeks, serum CLSTRL concentrations did not differ (P > .10) among treatments. Quantities of carcass mesenteric (P < .05) and kidney fat (P < .10) increased linearly, but longissimus muscle and liver fat contents did not differ (P > .10) among RPC levels. Supplementing RPC in high-concentrate diets improved performance, but results were not consistent among RPC levels or between cattle and sheep. Potential effects of RPC might be mediated through alterations in fat metabolism and(or) metabolic hormones related to fat metabolism.