Effects of dietary humic substances on pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ammonia emission

F. Ji, J. J. McGlone, S. W. Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Scopus citations

Abstract

Five experiments were conducted to test the effects of various dietary humic substances (HS; HS1, 2, 3, and 4, each with different fulvic and humic acid contents) on pig growth, carcass characteristics, and ammonia emission from manure. In Exp. 1, 120 pigs were allotted to 3 dietary treatments without HS (control) or with HS1 at 0.5 and 1.0% (8 pens/treatment and 5 pigs/pen) and fed diets, based on a 5-phase feeding program, from weaning (d 21.3 ± 0.3 of age) to 60 kg of BW. In Exp. 2 and 3,384 pigs (192 for each experiment) were allotted to 3 dietary treatments without HS, with HS1, or with HS2 (0.5%) for Exp. 2 and without HS, or with HS3 or HS4 (0.5%) for Exp. 3 (8 pens/treatment and 8 pigs/pen in each experiment). Pigs were fed diets, based on a 6-phase feeding program, from weaning (25.4 ± 0.2 and 23.6 ± 0.3 d of age for Exp. 2 and 3, respectively) to 110 kg of BW. In Exp. 4, 96 pigs were weaned at 22.1 ± 0.2 d of age and allotted to 2 treatments without or with HS1 at 0.5% (6 pens/treatment and 8 pigs/pen), and in Exp. 5 96 pigs were weaned at 20.9 ± 0.3 d of age and allotted to 3 treatments without HS, or with HS3 or HS4 (0.5%; 4 pens/treatment and 8 pigs/pen). Pigs were fed the diets for at least 2 wk before they were moved to an environmental chamber to measure aerial ammonia and hydrogen sulfide for 48 h at 5-min intervals. In Exp. 1, pigs fed diets with HS1 at 0.5% had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during phase 3 and greater (P < 0.05) G:F during phases 3 and 5 than control pigs. In Exp. 2, pigs fed diets with HS1 or HS2 at 0.5% had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F than control pigs during the entire feeding period, whereas in Exp. 3 HS3 or HS4 did not improve pig growth performance. Ammonia emission from manure was reduced by 18 or 16% when pigs were fed diets with HS1 (P = 0.067) or HS4 (P = 0.054), respectively. The results of this study indicate that the effects of dietary HS are variable but may improve growth performance of pigs and reduce ammonia emission from manure. Further research is needed to clarify these effects and the mechanisms by which HS may cause them.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2482-2490
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume84
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2006

Keywords

  • Ammonia
  • Carcass characteristic
  • Growth performance
  • Humic substance
  • Pig

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