Effects of chronic 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene exposure on developing bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles

Norka E. Paden, Ernest E. Smith, Jonathan D. Maul, Ronald J. Kendall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Chronic aqueous exposures were conducted using bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles (8. d old) exposed to TNT (0-4. mg/L), 2,4-DNT (0-4. mg/L), and 2,6-DNT (0-8. mg/L) for 90. d. Survival of tadpoles examined using Cox proportional hazard models was reduced at all concentrations tested. Percent of abnormal swimming and other morphological abnormalities after sublethal exposure to TNT, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT at 2. mg/L were also evaluated. The effects of TNT, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT on wet body mass, snout vent length (SVL), and developmental stage of surviving tadpoles were examined. Only 2,4-DNT did not have a significant effect on body mass or SVL, but all three compounds tested had significant effects on survival. Long-term continuous exposure to these compounds at concentrations of 0.25. mg/L could lead to significant changes in growth and survival of larval amphibians.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)924-928
Number of pages5
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Volume74
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2011

Keywords

  • Amphibian
  • Development
  • High explosives
  • Tadpoles
  • Toxic effects

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