ABSTRACT: Wong, A and Figueroa, A. Effects of acute stretching exercise and training on heart rate variability: A review. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1459-1466, 2021-Stretching (ST), an exercise modality widely used for flexibility improvement, has been recently proposed as an effective adjunct therapy for declines in cardiovascular health, warranting research into the effects of ST exercise on cardiac autonomic function (CAF). Heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) is a reliable measure of CAF, mainly the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations of HR. A low HRV has been associated to increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. Exercise interventions that enhance HRV are therefore seen as beneficial to cardiovascular health and are sought after. In this review, we discuss the effect of ST both acute and training on HRV. Stretching training seems to be a useful therapeutic intervention to improve CAF in different populations. Although the mechanisms by which ST training improves CAF are not yet well understood; increases in baroreflex sensitivity, relaxation, and nitric oxide bioavailability seem to play an important role.