Liver abscesses in feedlot cattle form secondary to high concentrate feeds and rumen acidosis. Antimicrobial drugs are commonly included in cattle feed for prevention of liver abscesses, but concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance have increased the need for alternative treatments. A block randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) on liver abscesses, fecal microbiomes, and resistomes in cattle raised without antibiotics in a Colorado feedlot. At enrollment, steers (n = 4,689) were sorted, by weight and source, into 2 pens comprising a block (n = 14 blocks, 28 pens); pens were randomly allocated to either the control group or the treatment group, where the diet was supplemented with SCFP. Prior to harvest, composited feces were collected for characterization of the microbiome and resistome using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun sequencing. At harvest, liver abscess severity was quantified for individual cattle. There were no statistical differences detected by treatment group in animal health, liver abscess prevalence or severity. Organisms classified to phylum, Elusimicrobia were more abundant in the feces of treated cattle, however, there were no differences in the resistome by treatment group. Both microbiome and resistome varied significantly among enrollment blocks.