Effect of Source and Amount of Zinc, Copper, Manganese, and Cobalt Fed to Stressed Heifers on Feedlot Performance and Immune Function

M. H. George, C. F. Nockels, T. L. Stanton, B. Johnson, N. A. Cole, M. A. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


One hundred and five crossbred heifer calves (208.6 kg ± 2.46) were used in two randomized block design studies to evaluate the effect of source and amount of Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co fed following weaning and transport stress on performance and immune response. Cattle were fed a basal diet that was supplemented with either: 1) inorganic trace minerals consisting of 106 ppm Zn from ZnO, 58 ppm Mn from MnO, 37 ppm Cu from CuSO4, and 7 ppm Co from CoCO3 (1× amount), or 2) organic element complexes fed isoelemental to inorganic trace element amounts (1×), providing Zn from Zn methionine (ZnMet), Mn from Mn methionine (MnMet), Cu from Cu lysine (CuLys), and Co from Co glucoheptonate (CoGlu), or 3) organic element complexes supplemented at 3× for the first 14 d posttransport; 318 ppm Zn from ZnMet, 174 ppm Mn from MnMet, 111 ppm Cu from CuLys, and 21 ppm Co from CoGlu, then reduced to the 1× supplement amount for the remaining period of the 42-experiment (3×/1×). No differences were observed among treatments in calf DMI, ADG, or FE over the 42 d trial. There were, however, increases (P<0.01) in calf secondary PI-antibody titer response at 14 and 28 d postvaccination. Skin swelling response at 21 d posttransport and at 12, 24, and 48 h postinjection to intradermal PHA was better with feeding organic trace elements at the 3×/1× concentration than either the organic 1× or the inorganic 1× treatments. Feeding calves 1× organic trace elements improved antibody titer response to IBRV vaccination at 14 (P<0.01) and 28 (P<0.05) d compared to the calves receiving the 1× inorganic treatment. The calves fed organic 3×/1× had a 17.2% reduction (P<0.05) in incidence of respiratory disease when compared to the other treatments. In this trial, the feeding elevated organic minerals showed significant improvements in primary and secondary humoral, and cell-mediated immunity compared to the feeding of inorganic sources.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-89
Number of pages6
JournalProfessional Animal Scientist
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 1997


  • Calf
  • Immunity
  • Minerals
  • Performance

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