Effect of Instructions and Feedback On Music Teaching Skills

Janice K.Nelson Killian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


This study investigated the effects of three feedback procedures on music teaching skill acquisition by prospective elementary and special education teachers. Feedback procedures included systematic videotape self-observation (counting and recording instances of specified teaching skill), unguided videotape self-observation, and instructor verbal feedback without videotape observation. Music teaching skills selected were teacher verbal reinforcement, nonverbal reinforcement (touches and facial expressions), and use of instructional time (amount of lesson time involving music and student participation). Of additional interest was the effect of teaching skill acquisition on student attentiveness. Teachers (n = 32) received instructions to perform a specific skill, taught a 5-minute music lesson, and subsequently received differential feedback during eight teaching sessions. No-contact control teachers (n = 20) taught pre-posttest or posttest-only lessons and received neither instructions nor feedback. Statistical results indicated no significant differences between feedback conditions on teaching skill or teacher attitude. All feedback groups were significantly better than no-contact control groups on measures of verbal and touch reinforcement. Graphic analysis of eight teaching sessions allowed comparison of teaching skill acquisition across time, during new and retaught lessons, and between children and peer student populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)166-180
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Music Therapy
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1981


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